The provisions of the Safety, Health and Welfare at Work Act 2005 (the 2005 Act) and the Safety, Health and Welfare at Work (General Application) Regulations 2007 to 2021 apply to the remote working environment.
However, as they were not drafted with remote working in mind but rather at a time when attendance at a traditional, physical workplace was the norm, the question arises as to whether the current framework of health and safety legislation in Ireland adequately supports remote and hybrid working.
The Risk Assessment
Health and safety legislation requires all employers to ensure, as far as reasonably practicable, that their employees are working in a safe environment. The employer is responsible for the safety of the ‘place of work’, which is defined in the 2005 Act as any place where “work is carried on whether occasionally or otherwise”. As part of this duty, a risk assessment must be carried out of the employee’s workspace, including any remote workstations. To assist employers during the pandemic, the Health and Safety Authority (HSA) issued Guidance on Working from Home for Employers and Employees with an appended Homeworking Risk Assessment Checklist which provided that a risk assessment should be carried out of the workstation/display screen by a competent person, where necessary.
The HSA defines a ‘competent person’ as someone with “sufficient training, experience and knowledge who can carry out the Display Screen Equipment risk assessment of an employee’s workstation”. The assessment can be carried out online, with the use of a camera device so that the assessor can get a live view of the workspace. The employer should then implement any necessary safety measures in response to hazards and risks that have been identified from the risk assessment. The workstation includes the work desk, the work chair, the screen and other IT accessories provided to the employee in the course of their employment.
To adequately assess the work environment, should the entire room that the employee works in be inspected and perhaps also the hallways immediately outside the room? Clear guidance as to what precisely should be assessed is needed as employers face new issues such as balancing the requirement to carry out a risk assessment with an employees’ right to privacy in their home.
Remote ‘Workplace Injuries’ and the Remote Commute
A workstation that does not comply with standards could result in injuries and loss of earnings, which an employer may be ultimately liable for.
A recent case in Germany saw an employee successfully claim on the workplace accident insurance for a slip, which occurred at home. Interestingly, this was considered a workplace accident and it was deemed that the employee was ‘commuting’ when moving around the home. It was decided by the German court that the policy of insurance would cover insured activities carried out in locations other than the company premises.
In Ireland, at present, it is unclear where the responsibility lies for insuring an employee’s home when it is also a place of work. The 2005 Act places an obligation on employees to report to employers on anything that may put their health and safety at work at risk. What this means in practical terms in the changed world of home and remote working is not clear. Does the potential hazard have to relate to a work activity? Employers will then also have to consider how investigations should be carried out at home, as opposed to at the office, in response to any report submitted.